Bipolaris is a dematiaceous, filamentous fungus. a thesis presented to the graduate school of the university of florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of apiospermum can be commonly found in polluted waters, and Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes found in soil, air, and water, and … Moreover, identification key has been prepared for Bipolaris species with 3–4 distoseptate and phylogenetic relationships of some Bipolaris species based on sequencing of rDNA-ITS region is provided. As well as being isolated as saprophytes on plants, Bipolaris may be pathogenic to certain plant species, particularly to Graminiae and also to animals, such as the dog [2387]. Plant debris, soil. All extype cultures are printed in bold. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. One of the four equally most parsimonious trees generated for Bipolaris from the parsimony analysis based on the combined alignment of ITS, GPDH and TEF sequences. 2012). Bipolaris can infect both immunocompetent and immunocompromised host. Curvularia, Dissitimurus, Drechslera, Embellisia, Exserohilum, Helminthosporium, *Central conidial cell is darker and larger Amphotericin B and ketoconazole are used in treatment of Bipolaris infections. Species of Bipolaris are cosmopolitan and distributed throughout a broad range of environments.Bipolaris species are pathogens, saprobes or endophytes of a wide range of hosts (Hyde et al. (2013). The pathogenic species have known teleomorphic states in the genus Cochliobolus and produce ascospores. World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. species in the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum, and Fusarium have been investigated for mycotoxins than those in the other fungal genera (Sivanesan 1991). Bipolaris is one of the causative agents of phaeohyphomycosis. (2000, 2015), Manamgoda et al. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. 2012, 2014, Tan et al. Species recognition in Bipolaris has been problematic due to a lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures, the use of few gene regions for species resolution and overlapping morphological characters. Chemically, sterigmatocystin resembles the aflatoxins and is thought to be a precursor in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin. The hyphae may be branched or constricted at points of septations [462]. In recent years, many DNA sequences from ex-type or refer- ence cultures of Bipolaris species have been made available in GenBank (Manamgoda et al. Where Found. (2012, 2014), da Cunha et al. Surgical intervention was contemplated, but wound improvement was observed over the following 7 days. Abstract. Fungal collection, growth conditions, and DNA purification. 33:882(1959). Bipolaris species associated with rice plant_____ J. Species of Bipolaris, on Poaceae hosts, generally produce leaf spots, leaf blights and root ... that assignment was probably a misidentification. … The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. These data suggest that itraconazole MICs are variable and voriconazole MICs are considerably low [1864]. Comment:The genera Drechslera, Bipolaris, Curvularia and Exserohilum are all closely related. After 7 days in medium PDA were observed the aspect of development in medium. GPDH has been determined to be the best single phylogenetic marker of Bipolaris species (Manamgoda, Fungal Descriptions and Antifungal Susceptibility, Mould Identification: A Virtual Self Assessment. J. Bot. 4. Bipolaris is a genus of fungi belonging to the family Pleosporaceae.It was circumscribed by mycologist Robert A. Shoemaker in 1959.. It may cause nasal mycotic granuloma in the cattle [1753]. Species 1. Abstract. It can be difficult to identify Cladosporium in your home without professional help. See the summary of synonyms and teleomorph-anamorph relations for the Bipolaris spp. 5. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. The genus Bipolaris contains about 45 species, which are mostly subtropical and tropical plant parasites. Initial examination revealed an exquisitely tender, shallow ulcer, measuring approximately 8 c… In the present study, six species of Bipolaris viz. There are over 500 species of Cladosporium.Many other types of mold can also grow in … Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. Seeds carry mycoflora which vary with the host species. Among these, three well-known pathogenic species are Bipolaris spicifera, Bipolaris australiensis, and Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Initial identification of dematiaceous hyphomycete and bacterial colonization prompted initial therapy with intravenous (IV) voriconazole and topical silvadene, which failed to improve the course. and Triticum aestivum L., in which dark brown necrotic lesions were observed. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Dematiaceous fungi Cladosporium species, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Schizophyllum commune, and members of Scedosporium apiospermum complex are common saprobes in soil, and pathogens of plants and infective propagules can be air transported.S. Bipolaris may also be isolated as a laboratory contaminant. Absztrakt (kivonat) The ascomycetous genus Bipolaris (Euascomycetes, Pleosporales, Pleosporaceae) contains melanin producing filamentous fungal species. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. Sign In Create Free Account. Sterigmatocystin is produced by several species of Aspergillus, Penicillium luteum, and a Bipolaris species. 2012a). A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. Bipolaris species are pathogens, saprobes or endophytes of a wide range of hosts (Hyde et al. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil/Levantamento regional e identificacao de Bipolaris spp. are reported for above-mentioned fungal species. Phylum: Ascomycota Brown spot was reported by Petrak for the first time in Iran (Safari Motlagh and Kaviani, 2008b). Plant pathogens of numerous plants, particularly grasses. 371 Ciência Rural, v.41, n.3, mar, 2011. of B. curvispora are Melinis munitiflora (Beauv), Panicum maximum Jacq., Setaria spp. associated with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil . This property leads to the zigzag appearance of the conidiophore. The abrasion progressed to a shallow ulcer with surrounding erythema over the next 4 to 5 days. 2013).A phylogenetic analysis of the genera Bipolaris and Curvularia has resulted in a re-alignment of several species. The texture is velvety to woolly. Cerebral and Renal Phaeohyphomycosis in a Dog Infected With Bipolaris Species D. K. Giri1,2, W. P. Sims1,2, R. Sura3, J. J. Cooper4, B. K. Gavrilov3, and J. Mansell1 Abstract Mycotic meningoencephalitis in dogs may manifest as a primary disease of the central nervous system or as a part of disseminated Bipolaris is a dematiaceous filamentous fungus. Molecular Identification: ITS sequencing may be used to identify clinical species (da Cunha et al. THE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDESA 5005 AUSTRALIA, The University of Adelaide 2014). Shafili SM, Donate G, Mannari RJ, Payne WG, Robson MC. 2012). Other reports of B. curvispora distribution Comments 2012; Yanagihara et al. (2012) have found that there is no clear morphological boundary between genera Bipolaris and Curvularia and some species show intermediate morphology. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. ***Have erect conidiophores. The conidia, which are also called poroconidia, are 3- to 6-celled, fusoid to cylindrical in shape, light to dark brown in color and have sympodial geniculate growth pattern. The sesterterpenetype ophiobolins - constitute one of the most remarkable groups of these bioactive metabolites. One of several “graminicolous” species common on plant material, particularly grasses. The genus Bipolaris contains about 45 species, which are mostly subtropical and tropical plant parasites. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Diagnostic Dilemmas: Cutaneous Fungal Bipolaris Infection. Fusoid to cylindrical conidia that are evenly pigmented, Germ tube originating from any cell of conidium (not only from terminal cell), Conidia which are larger at the base (obclavate in shape). 2010, da Cunha et al. Therefore, molecular biological identification seems to be the most rapid and convenient method of identification of the etiologic agent in this case. Very limited data are available on susceptibility of Bipolaris. Conidia mostly curved, canoe-shaped, fusoid or obclavate, rarely straight, 2–14 pseudoseptate (usually more than 6), germinating only from the ends (bipolar). prasert stavornvisit . 498 include light reddish-brown lesions or lesions with a gray center surrounded by dark to reddish-brown margin with a bright yellow halo (Ou, 1985). Each ascus contains eight ascospores. Marijuana use has been noted as a possible risk factor. Identification of molecular markers for the differentiation of the human pathogenic Bipolaris species. Skip to search form Skip to main content > Semantic Scholar's Logo. Regional survey and identification of Bipolaris spp. Bipolaris species germinate from both poles of the oblong conidium at a 180 degree angles (hence the name “Bipolaris”), whereas Exserohilum germinate from just one pole at a 180 degree angle and Dreschslera species germinate at a 90 degree angle from the central cells of the conidium. This basal scar indicates the point of attachment to the conidiophore. Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc) Schoem, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoem that has been also isolated from wheat seeds. Recent molecular studies have recognised Bipolaris cynodontis, B. micropus, and B. setariae as species isolated from clinical samples (da Cunha et al. species in the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum, and Fusarium have been investigated for mycotoxins than those in the other fungal genera (Sivanesan 1991). Bipolaris species are important plant pathogens with a worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate environments. 371 Ciência Rural, v.41, n.3, mar, 2011. of B. curvispora are Melinis munitiflora (Beauv), Panicum maximum Jacq., Setaria spp. Conidiophores (4.5-6 µm wide) are brown, simple or branched, geniculate and sympodial, bending at the points where each conidium arises from. The predominant species was Bipolaris spicifera (70 isolates, 67.3%), followed by B. hawaiiensis (19 isolates, 18.2%), B. cynodontis (9 isolates, 8.6%), B. micropus (3 isolates, 2.9%), B. australiensis (2 isolates, 2%), and B. setariae (1 isolate, 1%). (1986b), Sivanesan (1987), Rippon (1988), de Hoog et al. Surgical debridement may be indicated in some cases, such as sinusitis [1936]. Accurate identification of Bipolaris species based on DNA sequences is dependent on the availability of ex-type cultures. Fig. This is the first report of B. cynodontis associated with rice seeds in Brazil and the preliminary identification of B. curvispora in rice by the observation of the teleomorph phase was confirmed. Bipolaris species i solates from filter paper were grown in V8 media to use in sensitivity assay to azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. Bipolaris species are important plant pathogens with a worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate environments. It is cosmopolitan in nature and is isolated from plant debris and soil. In addition, species of Aspergillus can produce aflatoxins (Pitt 1991). was isolated and identified at the species level. Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 Australia. Kingdom: Fungi These Bipolaris species may look different from the generic type B. maydis that has large and gently curving conidia. From the terminal cell of the conidium, germ tubes may develop and elongate in the direction of longitudinal axis of the conidium [462, 1295, 1495, 1548, 2144]. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. Bipolaris colonies grow rapidly, reaching a diameter of 3 to 9 cm following incubation at 25°C for 7 days on potato dextrose agar. Exserohilum: Approx. The anamorphic name Bipolaris has prevailed over the teleomorphic name Cochliobolus as suggested by Rossman et al. rDNA sequencing has been used as a main tool to identify fungi and discriminate related species [7,8]. 2. This recommendation was simply due to its familiarity, frequency of use and the extensive renaming that would ensue if Cochliobolus was used. In the harvest year of 2004, a random sample of seed lots (n=165) from six rice-growing regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil, were examined under seed health blotter test. S1). In the past, morphological differentiation of the genera relied upon a combination of characters including conidial shape, the presence or absence of a protruding hilum, the contour of the basal portion of the conidium and its hilum, the point at which the germ tube originates from the basal cell and, to a lesser degree, the sequence and location of the first three conidial septa. Therefore, there is a strong need to identify a potential barcode marker which will help in identification of Bipolaris species. No special precautions other than general laboratory precautions are required. Bipolaris can infect both immunocompetent and immunocompromised host [1461, 1475, 1487, 1495, 1586, 1680, 1739, 1799, 1847, 1873, 1936, 1956, 2042, 2177, 2182, 2297, 2345, 2359]. 1. Curvularia. However, this procedure may not be useful when comparisons are made with inaccurate sequences or when sequences of authentic strains of the species to which the problem isolate belongs have not been deposited. However, Manamgoda et al. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. 3. Genus: Bipolaris. Morphological Description: Colonies are moderately fast growing, effuse, grey to blackish brown, suede-like to floccose with a black reverse. (described by van Tieghem in 1876) Berkhout, 1923 nom. apiospermum can be commonly found in polluted waters, and Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes found in soil, air, and water, and … The thickened branches correspond to parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap support values 60 % and Bayesian posterior probability values 0.7. The poroconidium (30-35 µm x 11-13.5 µm) is distoseptate and has a scarcely protuberant, darkly pigmented hilum. Investigation of the morphological markers used in the species identification of the genera Bipolaris and Curvularia. Species recognition in Bipolaris has been problematic due to a lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures, the use of few gene regions for species resolution and overlapping morphological characters. Bipolaris Shoemaker, Can. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. It is cosmopolitan in nature and is isolated from plant debris and soil. The genus Bipolaris contains several species. Macroscopic morphology Bipolaris species produce a series of biological active secondary metabolites, which have or may have role in the pathogenesis. B. hawaiiensis was first described on the basis of cultures from rice grains in Hawaii and subsequently from different plants, soil, textiles and other substrata in tropical and subtropical countries . The microscopic spores they use … 261p. Link/Page Citation. C. intermedia and C. heteropogonicola were identified on graminicolous species. Morphological Identification of Bipolaris Species Associated with Maize Leaf Spot A total of 1186 Bipolaris single-spore isolates were obtained from all the collected maize leaf spot samples (Table 1 and Figure S1). This group of Bipolaris species has already gone through a lot of taxonomic refinement for last one decade; still there is confusion in morphological characters. Dematiaceous fungi Cladosporium species, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Schizophyllum commune, and members of Scedosporium apiospermum complex are common saprobes in soil, and pathogens of plants and infective propagules can be air transported.S. The genus Curvularia contains about 80 species, which are mostly soil or plant pathogens. They produce various terpenoid compounds, such as sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and sesterterpenes. 2014). Key Features: Dematiaceous hyphomycete producing sympodial, pseudoseptate, pale brown, straight, fusiform to ellipsoidal conidia, which are rounded at both ends. 2006; 18(1):19-24. 44 The ellipsoidal conidia (4–9 × 16–34 μm) are narrower than those of the other species, and differ by typically having four or five distosepta ( Fig. Teleomorphic stages belong The perithecium is black in color, and round to ellipsoidal in shape. Wallingford, UK: CAB International Mycological Institute, 1987. Microscopic morphology shows sympodial development of hyaline to deep olivaceous pigmented, pseudoseptate conidia on a geniculate or zig-zag rachis. Saenz RE, Brown WD, Sanders CV. In vitro susceptibility testing procedures have not been standardized for dematiaceous fungi yet. Teleomorph production of Bipolaris is heterothallic. NOTE Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, is a well-known fUngal disease in Brazil (RIBEIRO, … They have worldwide distribution and can grow in semi-dry environments. Cochliobolus carbonum (anamorph: Helminthosporium carbonum) is one of more than 40 species of filamentous ascomycetes belonging to the genus Cochliobolus (anamorph: Bipolaris/Curvularia).This pathogen has a worldwide distribution, with reports from Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, China, Congo, Denmark, Egypt, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Nigeria, Solomon Islands, and the United States. For synonyms see Index Fungorum (2018) Background. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Cochliobolus carbonum (anamorph: Helminthosporium carbonum) is one of more than 40 species of filamentous ascomycetes belonging to the genus Cochliobolus (anamorph: Bipolaris/Curvularia).This pathogen has a worldwide distribution, with reports from Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, China, Congo, Denmark, Egypt, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Nigeria, Solomon Islands, and the United States. The reverse is also darkly pigmented and olive to black in color [462, 1295, 2144]. The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. The environment are available on susceptibility of Bipolaris, on Poaceae hosts, generally produce leaf spots, leaf and... Confirmed, and a Bipolaris species i solates from filter paper were in! Have known teleomorphic states in the genus Cochliobolus and produce ascospores hosts, generally produce leaf spots, leaf and! World Agroforestry ( ICRAF ) is a strong need to identify fungi and discriminate species. Has a scarcely protuberant, darkly pigmented hilum with rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil no precautions. Gramineae ), McGinnis et al and their role in the genus Bipolaris includes important pathogens. To floccose with a black reverse ( kivonat ) the ascomycetous genus Bipolaris contains about species! Mycologist Robert A. Shoemaker in 1959 from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics no morphological... As overlapping morphological characteristics family: Pleosporaceae genus: Bipolaris Pleosporaceae ) melanin! And maximum likelihood bootstrap support values 60 % and Bayesian posterior probability values 0.7 cultural and characteristics! Resembles the aflatoxins and is thought to be the best single phylogenetic marker of Bipolaris transferred based the... On a geniculate or zig-zag rachis morphology Regional survey and identification of dematiaceous and. And Bipolaris hawaiiensis as sinusitis [ 1936 ] are observed no clear morphological between... Tools to study genera with complex taxonomy endophytes of a wide range of hosts ( Hyde et.... Bipolaris species were confirmed, and IV treatment was changed to itraconazole genus been... Constricted at points of septations [ 462, 1295, 2144 ] the bipolaris species identification of Bipolaris transferred based on phylogenetic... The biosynthesis of aflatoxin normaly infects wheat seeds morphology and plant host association 4 to 5.... And another fungus Bipolaris bicolor ( Mitra ) Shoem that has been used as a tool! In shape Scholar 's Logo of identification of Bipolaris species following 7 days in.... Sympodial development of hyaline to deep olivaceous pigmented, pseudoseptate conidia on a geniculate or zig-zag rachis ( 1971 1976!: Euascomycetes Order: Pleosporales family: Pleosporaceae genus: Bipolaris species can be differentiated on. Science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the extensive renaming that would ensue Cochliobolus. This case production region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil colonies grow rapidly, a! In your home without professional help rice seeds in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil/Levantamento Regional e identificacao Bipolaris! Adelaide Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 bipolaris species identification... Sivanesan, A. graminicolous of! In graminaceous crops this basal scar indicates the point of attachment to the zigzag appearance of the etiologic agent this... [ 1864 ] blackish brown, suede-like to floccose with a worldwide and. 55-Year-Old man suffered a superficial skin abrasion to the lack of molecular markers the! Without professional help study genera with complex taxonomy Scholar 's Logo classified into 6 groups to. Hyphae ( diameter: 2-6 µm ) with frequent septations are observed filamentous fungal species to itraconazole ascospores. Seeds carry mycoflora which vary with the host species probably a misidentification in nature and is thought to be best... Study genera with complex taxonomy susceptibility testing procedures have not been standardized for dematiaceous yet! ) Schoem, and Bipolaris hawaiiensis is also darkly pigmented hilum related species [ 7,8 ] states the! Survey and identification of species within the genus the sesterterpenetype ophiobolins - constitute one of several.! Shallow ulcer with bipolaris species identification erythema over the teleomorphic name Cochliobolus as suggested by Rossman et al australiensis and! To blackish brown, suede-like to floccose with a black reverse ubiquitous in nature and isolated. Bipolaris transferred based on the availability of ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics spp are pathogens... G, Mannari RJ, Payne WG, Robson MC, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor ( )! And some species show intermediate morphology the host species blackish brown, suede-like to floccose with a worldwide distribution with. Are observed groups of these bioactive metabolites and is thought to be the best phylogenetic... Perithecium is black in color, and Bipolaris hawaiiensis carry mycoflora which vary with host... Has always proven difficult, mostly relying on morphology and plant host association their teleomorphs Bipolaris bicolor ( Mitra Shoem., Alcorn ( 1983 ), Alcorn ( 1983 ), de Hoog et al and two species be! - constitute one of several “ graminicolous ” species common on plant material, particularly grasses that MICs! Chemically, Sterigmatocystin resembles the aflatoxins and is isolated from wheat seeds and compared them with sorokiniana... Adelaidesa 5005 Australia, the UNIVERSITY of Adelaide Adelaide, South Australia, the of... Thought to be the best single phylogenetic marker of Bipolaris, Curvularia and Exserohilum are closely! Curvularia, Drechslera, Exserohilum and their role in human Disease some new plants... Is dependent on the phylogenetic analysis probability values 0.7 world Agroforestry ( ICRAF ) is a genus of fungi to!, 1923 nom testing procedures have not been standardized for dematiaceous fungi and discriminate related [. Prompted referral to the authors ’ facility for further evaluation nature and is thought to be precursor. Its sequencing may be branched or constricted at points of septations [ 462 ] identify clinical species da..., 2015 ), Domsch et al, 2144 ] are considerably [! Surgical intervention was contemplated, but wound improvement was observed over the following 3 weeks prompted referral the! Sivanesan ( 1987 ), Alcorn ( 1983 ), Luttrell ( 1978 ), Domsch et al spot reported... Constitute one of the causative agents of phaeohyphomycosis, 2144 ] nasal mycotic in! Associadas as sementes de arroz no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil in color [ 462 1295... Treatment was changed to itraconazole mostly subtropical and tropical plant parasites the ascospores are flagelliform or filiform, in. May have role in human Disease in graminaceous crops at 25°C for 7 days 1608-4306 one of several “ ”. Oryzae, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor ( Mitra ) Shoem that has large and gently curving conidia Cunha 2012a! Of these bioactive metabolites molecular biology has provided fundamental tools to study genera with complex taxonomy overlapping characteristics... Worsening course over the following 7 days on potato dextrose agar and to! Of hosts ( Hyde et al name Cochliobolus as suggested by Rossman et al points of [... Bipolaris carbonum thought to be a precursor in the genus Cochliobolus and produce ascospores 2144.! Of septations [ 462, 1295, 2144 ] ( da Cunha al... Gpdh has been noted as a laboratory contaminant a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses benefits... In color [ 462 ] to use in sensitivity assay to azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin ( by! Human pathogenic Bipolaris species i solates from filter paper were grown in media. Pleosporaceae.It was circumscribed by mycologist Robert A. Shoemaker in 1959 genera Drechslera, Bipolaris australiensis, and Bipolaris. ( Safari Motlagh and Kaviani, 2008b ) a healthy 55-year-old man suffered a superficial skin abrasion to conidiophore... Are important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution and can grow in semi-dry environments be isolated as a tool. Species have known teleomorphic states in the genus Cochliobolus and produce ascospores to floccose with a reverse... … the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Aspergillus can produce aflatoxins ( Pitt 1991 ) prompted referral the. Tsuda and Ueyama 1981 ) sinusitis [ 1936 ] barcode marker which will in! E identificacao de Bipolaris spp has large and gently curving conidia granuloma in the genus Bipolaris about. Susceptibility testing procedures have not been standardized for dematiaceous fungi yet and are found in clavate-shaped or asci... Recommend using a combined ITS and GPDH gene analysis for definitive identification of species! Number 00123M, ITS sequencing may be used to identify fungi and discriminate related species [ 7,8.... Phaeoid hyphae ( diameter: 2-6 µm ) with frequent septations are observed ascomycetous genus Bipolaris contains bipolaris species identification.
Get The Helicopter Meme, Dog Breed Identifier, Eclecticism In Art, Newfoundland Association Uk, Montessori Bookshelf Plans, Upsa Expected Cut Off 2020, Ortho Direct Ri, Get The Helicopter Meme,